Topological phononic metamaterials

The concept of topological energy bands and their manifestations have been demonstrated in condensed matter systems as a fantastic paradigm toward unprecedented physical phenomena and properties that are robust against disorders. Recent years, this paradigm was extended to phononic metamaterials (including mechanical and acoustic metamaterials), giving rise to the discovery of remarkable phenomena that were not observed elsewhere thanks to the extraordinary controllability and tunability of phononic metamaterials as well as versatile measuring techniques. These phenomena include, but not limited to, topological negative refraction, topological 'sasers' (i.e., the phonon analog of lasers), higher-order topological insulating states, non-Abelian topological phases, higher-order Weyl semimetal phases, Majorana-like modes in Dirac vortex structures and fragile topological phases with spectral flows. Here we review the developments in the field of topological phononic metamaterials from both theoretical and experimental perspectives with emphasis on the underlying physics principles. To give a broad view of topological phononics, we also discuss the synergy with non-Hermitian effects and cover topics including synthetic dimensions, artificial gauge fields, Floquet topological acoustics, bulk topological transport, topological pumping, and topological active matters as well as potential applications, materials fabrications and measurements of topological phononic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss the challenges, opportunities and future developments in this intriguing field and its potential impact on physics and materials science.